Many doctors just do FGM after they fail to persuade the parents with the hazards of this operation as the doctors know womeen parents will do it any how and if performed by day as it will carry more risks, so they just cut as little as possible only from libiaminora away from clitoris or even make a tiny wound so the parents will be convinced with the bleeding they see.
The most common forms of FGM still widely practiced in this study are type II commonly referred to as excision and type I commonly referred to as clitoridectomy.
FOGEL 5. Any action against FGM is an issue that demands a collaborative marrifd involving health professionals, religious leaders, educationalists and nongovernmental organizations. In the present study, the majority of the mutilated respondents were housewives Book Review by K.
Also mutilated females are under depressive irritated mood with lower self-esteem, as mentioned before; this mood exerts a negative impact maried their social relationships. The study included married sexually active females.
List of references
And this can be explained by the negative affection on physical, psychological and sexual aspects of life. ARYEE 8. PONIC 4. This is compatible MacDonach et al. Sex Workers Addressing Treatment S.
ANH, P. Therefore, this study does not reflect regional differences among Egyptian females. Married 9. Some participants required repeated questioning before they understood the questions. This finding contradicts that of Tag El D in et al. It is generally observed that women with higher education are less likely to have mutilated daughters than women with lower or no formal education UNICEF, Other aspects in this domain were not largely affected and this can be explained by the fact that FGM is not that procedure which directly affects energetic activities but has indirect effect on physical aspect through influencing sleep quality or psychological aspect of wit.
We can conclude that this domain psychological shows multi factorial affection and reflects the defects in other aspects of life. ERKAN 1.
At this point we agree with Tag El-Din et al. Improving education level among females will be gradually associated with decrease in its prevalence, and it may die in peace. This study was done in the capital city of Egypt.
Implementation at the National Level of the Decisions of the Regional and International Human Rights Systems
They strongly believed on this up to some of them mentioned that they have been subjected to the circumcision twice, one when they were children and the other one just before marriage. CHOI, K. DALY, M. Book Review: Walter S.
Female Genital Mutilation, Cutting, or Circumcision
We can explain the shift from type 1 to type 2. RAIL 1. This difference may be also attributed to regional variation, which reflects cultural issues.
In the latter situation, the procedure is commonly associated with increased risks and complications, in spite of being considered a minor surgical procedure. FGM is typically performed on young girls who are between 4 and 12 years old, however, the procedure may be carried out shortly after birth to sometime before the age of marriage WHO, Hometown, Tag El-Din et al. And we disagree with Tag El-Din et al.
For this reason our study was limited when we consider females in menopause. This goes with UNICEF which states that, FGM prevalence levels are generally lower among females with higher education, indicating that mutilated girls may also likely to grow up with lower levels of education attainment.
In more recent years there has been increased awareness of problems associated with FGM in Egypt together with moves towards involvement of the medical profession in this practice. This result should direct our strategy to concentrate on changing the attitude of mothers and grandmothers towards the prevention of this violence against girls Figure 2. Also Al-Hussaini reported that BAKER 3. Book Review by T. BAGLI 4.
We noticed during our study that most of females who underwent type I FGM were older than 30 years old, and that was statically confirmed. This also was clear when we assessed the effect of occupational status on our candidates of both groups. Fourteen and a half percent ROBB 4. But when we searched deeply for the reasons of this wide difference in our we came to an explanation which suggests that the candidates by saying cleanliness they refer to the aesthetic judgments of physical appearance, rather than to a concept of actually being dirty, and from our local examination we noticed that the general external shape of the genitalia was sometimes distorted with no complain of the female even when she was asked about.